Enzymes Applied to the Synthesis of Amines
A great variety of biocatalytic methods are available for the synthesis of amines, in particular α-chiral amines. Therefore, chapter 6 aims to orient non-specialists to the available biocatalytic methodologies for the synthesis of α-chiral amines with a focus on the enzymes’ substrate scope and selectivity as well as the structural diversity of the obtained products. The presented enzymatic methods comprise the use of hydrolases, amine oxidases, transaminases, amine dehydrogenases, imine reductases, ammonia lyases, Pictet-Spenglerases and engineered cytochromes P450. Classification and reactivity, biocatalytic applications and selected important examples are discussed for each enzyme category. Methodologies entail the kinetic resolution or deracemisation of racemic amines and the asymmetric synthesis from prochiral precursors, where applicable. Finally, the last chapter’s section illustrates practical procedures. Notably, the presented biocatalytic methods can yield primary, secondary and tertiary amine products and often with excellent chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity under mild reaction conditions.